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The Chemical Properties And Stability Of Formic Acid

- Nov 22, 2018 -

Formic acid, also known as formic acid, has the molecular formula HCOOH. Formic acid is colorless and irritating, and it is corrosive. It will blister and redden when contacted by human skin. Formaldehyde has both acid and aldehyde properties. In the chemical industry, formic acid is used in the rubber, pharmaceutical, dye, and leather industries.


1. Chemical properties: Formic acid is a strong reducing agent and can undergo a silver mirror reaction. It is the most acidic in saturated fatty acids, and the dissociation constant is 2.1×10-4. Slowly decompose into carbon monoxide and water at room temperature. Heated to 60-80 ° C with concentrated sulfuric acid to separate carbon monoxide. The formic acid is heated to above 160 ° C to liberate carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The alkali metal salt of formic acid is heated to 400 ° C to form oxalate.


2. Formic acid can dissolve fat. Inhalation of formic acid vapor has a severe irritating effect on the nasal and oral mucosa and can cause inflammation. Wear protective masks and rubber gloves when handling concentrated formic acid. The workshop must have showers and eyewash equipment. The workplace should have a good ventilation environment. The maximum allowable formic acid concentration in the boundary air is 5*10-6. Inhaled poisoned persons should leave the site immediately, inhale fresh air, and inhale 2% of atomized sodium bicarbonate. Once contaminated with formic acid, rinse immediately with plenty of water, taking care not to wipe with a damp cloth.


3. Stability: stable.


4. Incompatible materials: strong oxidants, strong bases, active metal powder.


5. Polymerization hazard: no polymerization.


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